Playing TUG: Do it right and keep it fun for both you and your dog!
Tug can build impulse control and awesome obedience skills!
By Mindy Cox, BS, CPDT-KSA
First, forget the myth
For decades, pet parents have been told never to play tug with their dogs because it increases aggression in the dog. Studies show that this just isn’t true.* Playing tug doesn’t turn your dog into a predator; he already is one. The game simply provides a safe and enjoyable outlet for the behavior.
Why it’s a good idea
The game of tug with your dog is:
- A tremendous cardio workout and brainteaser for your dog.
- A great way to teach your dog to listen to you even when excited and distracted.
- Exercise that can happen indoors, outdoors, in short sessions, and with little space.
- Likely to lessen behavior problems resulting from under-stimulation and boredom.
- A potent motivator for snappy obedience.
This game has been called tug-of-war but I am opposed to that terminology. This is not a war with a winner and a loser. This is a game where both sides are having a respectful dialog with agreed-upon rules and both are enjoying the encounter. Your dog doesn’t ‘win’ by jumping on you and grabbing the toy out of your hand or “accidentally” biting your hand so you let go of the toy. The game of tug, however, should be correctly trained and always played by the rules. Remember: When you teach the rules, your dog will understand appropriate gameplay. Follow the method and rules laid out here, and you are in for a great time with your dog:
If your dog hoards the tug toy, show zero interest. If, when your dog “wins,” i.e. you let go of the tug toy, he leaves and hoards the toy, you should play hard to get. Never chase your dog or get into a battle involving speed or agility. You won’t win and psych-outs work much better, so pretend you couldn’t care less.
Notice and reward steps in the right direction. If your dog tries to re-engage you in the game by dropping the toy in front of you, praise him and try again. The goal is for your dog to learn that the tug toy is infinitely more fun when brought to life by you than when dead. Patience is key here, especially with inveterate hoarders.
Before playing tug, put the release on cue.
Decide on a word to release the toy such as “Out,” “Give,” or “Drop.” Before getting your dog excited about playing tug for the first time, practice some low-key exchanges with him. The sequence is:
1- Give the cue to release the toy
2- Your dog releases
3- Give a food reward
4- Give the cue to re-take the toy
Here’s how to teach it:
Start by trading for a treat. Say your release cue first and then hold a treat at your dog’s nose; when your dog releases the toy he gets the treat. After enough repetitions, your dog will begin to release the toy after you have cued his release and before you have brought out the treat. Immediately reward this great behavior! At first, the reward will be the treat, but over time the reward will be another fun game of tug.
Every game has penalties when performed incorrectly.
During actual tug games, apply the following penalties for any mistakes:
A 30-second time out. For any failure to release the tug toy, stop playing and leave the room for 30 seconds.
End the game. For game misconduct like grabbing your clothes or your hand with his mouth, stop the game altogether. Don’t make the mistake of assuming this was an accident. Dogs can have good control of their mouths (unless they are very excited, and then the game should pause even before this happens) and I don’t believe that you should chalk it up to being an accident. Whatever the reason is, the game should end. There should be a clear consequence.
When your dog knows, loves, and is hooked on tug, ending the game abruptly is by far the most potent motivator against rule-breaking.
Here are the 4 rules for a fun game of tug.
1. Your dog has to release the tug toy on cue. Of course, you have thoroughly trained the word to release the toy, so any failure to comply should result in a stop-play penalty. If your dog knows this cue under normal conditions and fails to respond appropriately, your dog may have reached a state of over-arousal and a long pause in the game is warranted.
2. The game only happens when your dog is sitting and you say so. Designate a tug toy as the one-and-only tug toy, reserved for this game only. Decide on a take command such as “Get it!” Then teach your dog that he has to sit before being given permission to get the toy. This is a moment of calm self-control. Build it and use it.
The easiest way to train this rule is to practice it while playing. Wait for or ask for a sit. Show your dog the toy. If your dog gets up or goes for the toy before you have released him with his “take it” cue, the toy goes out of his reach or behind your back. Stand neutrally, quietly, and calmly and wait for him to sit again. Once he has, release him to get the toy and have a short fun tugging game. When he gets good at the game, add additional time he has to wait before he’s released to get it, and then add distractions, such as waving the toy near him or slapping it on the floor while he remains in the sit and waits patiently with anticipation and excitement.
This rule infraction is extremely common in tug-of-war games, so don’t sweep it under the rug. If your dog continually goes for another retake before being invited, or is extremely aroused and is jumping all over you instead of sitting and waiting, end the game for a short period of time.
Building impulse control, where your dog is reinforced for making a good choice, is an important part of the power of choice for your dog. (Check out this previous blog article).
3. The game stops often for obedience breaks and calm behavior. Tug-of-war is one of the great recyclable rewards for obedience training. Alternate back and forth between the tug game and obedience to spot-check your control over your dog during the game and to teach him obedience when he is excited and distracted. This also teaches him to go from high arousal to calmer behavior, which is an important concept for dogs to learn. Every initiation of the tug game is a potent reward you can use to select a particularly nice obedience response. Your dog will try fanatically hard to improve his obedience to get you to restart the game. For example, try using it as a valuable reinforcer for exercises such as coming when called. What’s more, through repeated association over time, the two activities will blur in your dog’s mind, eventually making him love obedience training.
4. Zero tolerance for sloppy jaw control. Your dog will sometimes make contact with your hand or other part of you. Sometimes he might even latch on to you or your clothing as though you were a tug toy. Don’t let this go unnoticed. Screech “Ouch!” even if it didn’t hurt and abruptly end the game. This is game misconduct every time. Dogs can control their jaws with great precision if given a reason to do so. (Don’t use the loud “Ouch!” if it excites your dog more.) With this rule you not only remind your dog of the sensitivity of human skin and the great necessity to keep his jaws off people at all times, but you have also trained this while he is excited.
That’s it. Now have fun with it.
If your dog isn’t breaking any of the rules, let him get as excited as he wants as long as he can demonstrate self-control when asked. This includes head shaking, strong tugging, and growling. But maintain the rules through constant practice and testing.
*Podberscek AL, Serpell JA. Environmental influences on the expression of aggressive behaviour in English Cocker Spaniels. Applied Animal Behaviour Science. 1997 Apr 1;52(3-4):215-27.